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Stoned, For All Eternity

Garment-Dyed Cotton Shawl Collar Sweater In GreyAn incredible deal has been written about and made a lot of in different archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors had been in a position to carve out, transport and erect large multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of effectively, monumental size. The implication is that since there isn’t any doubting the existence of those buildings, our ancestors must of in actual fact possessed a sophisticated know-how or had assistance from those who did (i.e. – ‘historic astronauts’). That runs opposite to the standard model of scholarly archaeology. However the questions remain.

Perhaps I would better say what I mean by large multi-ton stone blocks. I mean stones which can be a minimum of several tons in weight, up to the largest recognized carved (however nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That is not the document nonetheless for there may be, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at sixteen,250 tons. I imply these are stones that aren’t trivial to toss around, even in the present day. And whereas not all major continents and countries have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (together with New Zealand) that nonetheless leaves numerous places, and well-known places, that do.

How and why these megaliths were constructed isn’t any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, well these stone monuments have been clearly crucial to them, and it’s necessary to us to figure out how and why they did it. Using massive stone blocks as an alternative of wood and even small stone blocks or bricks should have served a objective despite the better hardships concerned. So, why did our ancient ancestors want massive stones; and how did they handle them

As to the why, presumably, for starters, should you determine to use stone, then it is vital sufficient a cloth serving a function(s) that necessitates lasting for all practical purposes an ‘eternity’. For those who construct something to last, a minimum of back then, you utilize stone, the larger the higher. However for what objective did the ancients want such megalithic giants

Issues Arising: Purpose
These ancient societies or cultures spent an awful lot of sources to build things that had been relatively peripheral to their fundamental needs. The Easter Islanders could survive with out these Moai statues; historical Egypt would still have been a ‘superpower’ even without these pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, huge statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – usually referred to as Ramesses the good), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was just a shrine to one of many Greek deities (Athena), and related observations may very well be extended to the 1000’s of other monumental megalithic temples and monuments world wide which had been mainly ceremonial in operate.

It is difficult to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the fundamental survival needs of the native inhabitants – you needn’t construct one thing of that magnitude just to inform you what season it’s! If it is advisable to mark, say the Summer Solstice, all you want have is a historically and completely properly marked and simply identified Level A, the place you can observe some mounted construction like a rock on the Horizon, that is Point B, and when the Sun arises directly over Level B, that is the longest day of the yr. There isn’t any need to engage in any sort of backbreaking toil or building whatever.

If a society can afford to spend effort and time and cash on secondary projects, say like in trendy society various public artwork works in comparison with primary projects like roads (transport), colleges (training) and hospitals (health care), then you have to conclude that that society was properly off given that they might divert fundamental resources from primary initiatives to undertake initiatives of a secondary nature. Both that, or that which appears to us as comparatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or those Easter Island statues or the Sphinx actually held a primary function incomprehensible to us but which rivalled in importance housing and insuring sufficient meals provides and related things very important to their day-to-day survival.

Points Arising: Logistics
There’s also the logistics downside. You need a big workforce that had to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, especially fed. There wasn’t precisely a close by supermarket the place infinite provides may very well be bought. Further, whereas employed on these quarrying, transporting and building initiatives the employees could not be gainfully employed elsewhere to supply basics like searching and gathering for food and even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The staff couldn’t have been used for serving within the military, or another helpful and necessary job. All of this carving, transporting and development were not just busy work designed to maintain the rabble off the streets and out of bother, and slave labour wasn’t often in vogue either, contrary to many fashionable Hollywood photographs. After all within the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, but wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Still, the logistics in caving that massive stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been huge, and the reason(s) for doing so of vast importance to the powers-that-be.

Points Arising: Ways and Means: The How!
Although our focus and curiosity is usually on the construction section, as in how was that carried out, that is normally only one-third of the laborious yards. Take these 2.3 million blocks that make up the nice Pyramid at Giza. Section One: every block had to be carved to dimension. You just didn’t hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is hard yakka and helped keep up a state of full employment. Exhausting yakka Part Two was transporting those carved blocks from the varied quarries – some native, some not – to motion metropolis, the Giza Plateau. More full employment. The how in Phase One and Two is not often all that mysterious – simply bloody arduous backbreaking work. Anyway, back to the construction – Part Three.

To me the most important thriller will not be a lot the way you get one thing from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Television series “Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires”), but how you get a large multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to 40 or extra toes to act as a lintel, like those at Stonehenge or on all those Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can all the time conceive of constructing sand or dirt ramps to haul large lintels upwards into place, hence eradicating the sand or dirt after-the-fact, but if you think about it, such infrastructure is a way more labour intensive and an all-spherical main mission in its own proper. For example, constructing a sand ramp to haul those multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a better quantity of fabric to be put into place (and of course later eliminated) than that of the quantity of fabric required to build the pyramid in query in the primary place. After all if the project is that vital, and if there’s simply no other way – effectively there’s at all times those exhausting options.

As an example for instance of just how dangerous our information of our distant historical ancestors actually is, here is a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his text “The Historic Greek World: Individuals and Places” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their intellectual powers and their remarkably skilled craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few details survive of their actual building methods, nevertheless.”

“Cranes had been almost certainly used to help raise the masonry as much as the temples during construction, though no traces of such machinery have been found.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and certainly housed and fed the massive, highly skilled workforce required to build them, so effectively is unknown.”

So, now let us take a look at alternatives as supplied in some alt-archaeological texts.
One concept sometimes seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these huge blocks did not begin out as large blocks, similar to a brick does not begin out as a brick, however reasonably they have been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, however fashionable petrologists’ could easily detect such. Typically in actual fact the quarry from the place the stone originated will be exactly recognized, though that usually raises the question then of transport, because the distances twixt quarry site and construction site can be hundreds of miles. That’s a difficulty that applies to Stonehenge in addition to a number of the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you actually need to go far-out, star-scout, let’s strive antigravity! Anti-gravity is only available in one form, darkish energy. Darkish vitality is that mysterious antigravity force that’s causing the increasing Universe to carry on increasing at ever sooner and sooner rates, in defiance of gravity which should sluggish the expansion price down. Alas, dark energy, which while dominant over the scale of the entire Universe, is trivial locally relative to Earth’s intense gravity discipline.

Alt-archaeology texts are full of references stone island jacket mussola gommata to sound energy that levitates (negates gravity) and thus huge blocks of stone might be floated around and put into place even with just the oomph of an infant, simply by making the suitable sound at the appropriate degree.. Sound in fact might be targeted. Everyone knows and recognize the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, effectively at the least relatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the skilled projections of the educated human voice (or equivalent). However, should you crunch the numbers, the energy required to negate gravity is means outdoors the realm of which sound energy can muster. Considering the cacophony of sounds the human race produces daily, you’d assume that all the relevant elements would come collectively somewhere, sometime and ‘simply so’ as to provide levitation in one thing, levitation noticed and photographed for the file. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles
In some constructions, it is not only a matter of manipulating massive but irregular stone blocks but fitting them collectively like a jigsaw puzzle, outcomes which might be immediately apparent at sites all over the world, like these from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone using only other stone or copper tools shouldn’t be straightforward by any stretch of the imagination. It isn’t simple; it’s extraordinarily exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all your blocks aren’t a typical sq. block measurement and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say
Pity that although the ancients left all method of images behind of their day by day lives and culture, I find it superb that despite all of those multi-1000’s of photos from ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, and many others. not one shows an precise half-finished or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple just like the Parthenon that’s under construction, or whatever. That is extremely anomalous IMHO, though there are pictures of historical Egyptians transporting massive stone blocks.

Nevertheless, even a few of these historical cultures were puzzled as to how their much more historical ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions unimaginable’.

There’s something very odd when the natural descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for how their ancestors constructed, transported and erected large stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their ultimate resting (actually standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, besides Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” staff completed the same with less elegant but with pure grunt power. Walking stone statues are just a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for comfort. Actually for some cause Easter Islanders sooner or later downed their stone tools and abandoned their statue constructions for reasons not completely clear aside from priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can nonetheless be seen immediately, lying in place, now long uncared for.

Additionally in the Pacific area, Nan Modal is an ancient metropolis of about zero.Seventy five sq. kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s in the present day termed Micronesia. The city is comprised of synthetic islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus usually referred to because the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ however are constructed up of massive megalithic stone walls up to 25 toes high. How so Effectively the stones were carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be honest, that makes as much sense as the rest.

I famous above that allegedly sound might levitate large stone blocks. That idea or observation is found in both South America and historical Egypt – large stones are someway lifted and transported by sound. I nonetheless think that’s highly suspect and I think scientists would need an actual trendy-day demonstration. I do know I might.

Tentative Conclusions
As I famous above, it’s not the caving or the transport that is the true difficulty, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s a real problem, moderately the issue is lifting massive stones straight up that I especially puzzle over.

The puzzlement relates to our own use of stones in building tasks. We may I guess, if we wanted to, build our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. But we don’t. Your house, if it accommodates constructing stones in any respect, are stones which can be most likely akin to weights of just a number of pounds, maybe dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we have a significant thriller here Nicely yes, especially when in comparison with fashionable society as noted instantly above. In our fashionable high-tech age, after we do use stone as a construction material, it’s in manageable bits and pieces. We do not construct our homes or office buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. But when duty called, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to a higher elevation when the Aswan High Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historic site, even utilizing modern expertise it was still a significant and massive effort.

A Doable Answer
Maybe we can kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Universal One: As we notice, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America at the very least); throughout Europe and the Close to and Middle East, Egypt and other parts of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific area, there are historical megalithic constructions using stone blocks within the multi mega-ton range. How did the ancients carve, transport, elevate and position such huge stone blocks

Universal Two: Also around the world, there is a universal theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – well you name the culture and I’ll guarantee they will have giants as a core factor in their mythologies. For samplers, here is only a partial checklist of giants. Effectively there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Additional, you could have all method of giant trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), various large apemen just like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and numerous others, as effectively because the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Nicely, what’s ‘mission: inconceivable’ for a younger baby, is possible for an grownup; what’s ‘mission: impossible’ for grownup humans might be potential for an enormous(s). A large twice as large as a typical human could have eight times the muscle energy, since muscles are three-D, doubling in length, width and peak; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = eight.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited
Historic Greeks typically attributed varied huge stone constructions to the Cyclopes, as an example. Such massive buildings are termed the Cyclopean walls since the Cyclopes and only the Cyclopes might have built these structures. Perseus had them chargeable for building the partitions of Mycenae, together with the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them constructing the partitions of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as evidence that giants must as soon as have walked the Earth. And who built the enormous’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast

Is this too far out I’m open to other recommendations, however at the very least it does not require excessive-tech alien help, unless in fact those worldwide mythological giants, just like the Cyclopes, were aliens!

Appendix: A number of notable megalithic monuments.
1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at a thousand to 1250 tons apiece.
*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that is all up comes to roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some completed and transported megaliths.

*Stonehenge: some stones are up to 40 tons.
*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The famous fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones close to 100 tons in weight.
*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has a few of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Region
*These Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh as much as 70, even one up to 86 tons.

Historical Egypt
*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at seven-hundred tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the good) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. One in every of his quite a few dozens of monumental statues commissioned to picture self (at Luxor) – one hundred tons value of stone. However that is featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was only just getting warmed up. There is a statue at Thebes, Egypt, a part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in question, of one thousand tons. Now that is heavyweight status.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).
*Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is properly often called overkill relating to constructing a tomb. Although the common weight of each stone block is ‘solely’ 2.5 tons, the most important slabs comprising the burial chamber, are available in at eighty tons.

*Aside from the nice Pyramid, other Egyptian pyramids, actually most, if not all other, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, including monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, a few of which weigh in at over one hundred tons.

South and Central America
*These well known but mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved all the way down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru has massive stones part and parcel of its development weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a very well-known Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs significantly more than the wall calendar you hold up at dwelling. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a well-known Mayan site, particularly thanks to Erich Von Daniken. The biggest stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Additional prompt readings
Childress, David Hatcher; Know-how of the Gods: The Unimaginable Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Historical Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:
De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Mystery; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the beginning and the tip; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Misplaced Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

Nationwide Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Historic World; Nationwide Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods ; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:
Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Area; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Further viewings:
NOVA; Secrets of Misplaced Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:
There’s additionally been dozens of books/movies written/produced specifically in regards to the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, historic Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and so on. Seek the advice of your native library.